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The Parliament of India has a parliamentary form of government. It is the supreme legislative organ of the nation and is also called Bharatiya Sansad. In a parliamentary form of government, the Prime Minister and his Council of Ministers are collectively responsible to the people of the nation. Their meeting takes place at Sansad Bhavan in New Delhi.

The Parliament is supposed to meet at least two times in one year and this meeting of Parliamentary members is called a session. Thus, three sessions are conducted annually and they are classified as the following:

1. Budget session: It commences from January and goes till May.

2. Monsoon session: It commences from July and continues till September.

3. Winter session: It commences from November till December.

Parliament of India

Composition of the Parliament

The Indian Constitution has paved the way for a bicameral Parliament or legislature which comprises of President and the two houses- Lok Sabha or the Lower house represents people of India and Rajya Sabha or Upper House represents states of India. The President who is an integral part of the Indian Parliament has the authority to call upon either houses of Parliament and to dissolve Lok Sabha.

1. Lok Sabha:

Lok Sabha which is the first chamber of the parliament is representative of the citizens of India as a whole. The members who are elected are called Members of Parliament (MPs) and the Prime Minister of India is the head of the political party ruling in the Lower House.

2. Rajya Sabha:

The framers of the Indian Constitution has designed the Upper House to keep a check on the misuse of powers given to the Lok Sabha. It’s main function is to meet the interests of the states and the union territories.

Now, let’s learn more about the composition, elections qualifications and to the two houses of Parliament.

Parliament of India Parliament of India

List showing distribution and reservation of seats in the Lower house:

Parliament of India

Distribution of seats in Upper house:

Parliament of India

Functions of Parliament:

1. Legislative Powers: It is to create new laws and updating the old ones in accordance of the Union, state and concurrent list subjects.

2. Executive Powers:It is related to the formation of the Government (executive) with the Members of Parliament and execution of new legislations and the policies

3. Financial Powers: It is about planning as well as enacting the annual financial budget for states and center. It also holds government accountable for the financial spending done by them.

4. Constituent Powers: It is about the Constitutional amendment and the articles.

5. Judicial Powers: The Parliament can impeach the President if found violating the Constitution, dismissal of judges from Supreme Court and High court and the Vice- President too.

6. Electoral Powers: The parliament is endowed with the power to elect and appoint the President and the Vice- President.

7. Other Powers: It includes powers like resolving the conflicts of national and international importance , imposing the emergency in times of financial, national and state crisis and to assemble or dissolve the state legislature.

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