Carbon and its Compounds for Class 10th
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Here we are going to study about Carbon and its compounds. Why does only carbon consist of the traits of such chemical combination nature? Here you will get your answers about “Carbon and its Compounds Class 10th notes “.
Like we all should know that our food, clothes, books, and many other things that are used by us daily, contains Carbon.
What is Carbon?
Carbon:-Carbon is a major and important element among the elements found on Earth. The sign of this element is “C “and atomic number is 4, atomic mass is 12. Due to its unique properties, it has the special place in the chemistry and a separate branch known as organic chemistry
Carbon present on earth’s crust in 0.02% only in mineral form( like Carbonates that form limestone and dolomite, hydrogen carbonates, coal , petroleum and some pure form of carbon minerals like graphite, and diamond), and in the environment has 0.03% in the form of carbon dioxide( CO2). And that small presence makes such a unique diversity.
Properties of Carbon’s in Carbon and its Compounds Lesson
Carbon has infinite numbers of compounds because: it shows a unique property of catenation and it has a covalence property ( that means it can mutually share its electron pair with other element ) it has a valency of +-4.
Versatile Nature of Carbon has Some Unique Properties While making Carbon and its Compounds
There are many other elements which make Carbon and its Compounds of its different reasons:
1. Tetravalency:-Carbon has a four electrons in the valence shell and to attain noble and to attain a stable electronic configuration it should have at least 8 electrons in the valence shell (octet rule) and it’s tough to gain 4 electrons or to lose 4 electrons because it require a great amount of energy so to avoid this carbon show a unique property of tetravalent or covalence that it mutually share its electron Pair and form bonds which are known as covalent bonds.
2. What is Catenation:-Catenation, it is a unique property of element to form a bond with itself and form long chains. This property is dominant in carbon, significant among sulphur and slightly present in germanium, nitrogen, seleurium and tellurium.
3. Polymerizations:-The Process of making long chain of element by adding no. of mono bar (small element) with same elements in a reaction are called polymerisation. For example: Ethene converts into polythene and ester into polyester.
4. Isomer:-The carbon compounds which have same chemical formula, but different structural formula is known as isomers. For example, butane and isobutene.
Essential Points of Carbon and its Compounds Which will Work as Notes for Class 10th
Carbon and its compounds have their key features also like if we classify it as.
A. Carbon compounds:The compounds which have carbon in its molecular formula. For example: CO2, C6H12O6, CH3COOH etc.
If we classify it, we found organic and inorganic Compounds
(i) Inorganic compounds:- It is a typical compound that lack carbon hydrogen bonds in it.
(ii)Organic compounds:-These compounds have carbon form the covalent bond with the hydrogen and with other elements like oxygen, nitrogen and Carbides, oxides of carbon, carbonates, hydrogen carbonates and salts are continued to be studied in this group.
B. Hydrocarbon:-In which we found both hydrogen and carbon in its molecular formulas. For example: -CH4, C2H6 etc,
Classification of Hydrocarbon:-
1. Saturated compounds
Saturated compounds are those carbon compounds that have carbon atoms bonded single bonds and in unsaturated compounds the carbon atoms are bonded by double or triple bonds.
(i) Alkane:- having single bond compound, e.g.; Ethane In these compound we cannot add more hydrogen hydrogen (CnH2n+2 where n is the number of carbon)
2. Unsaturated compounds
(i) Alkene: having double bond, E.g.,Ethene (CnH2n where n is the number of carbon)
(ii) Alkyne: Having Triple bonds with different structures. E.g., Ethyne (CnH2n-2 where n is the number of carbon compounds)
(i) Cycloalkane: alkane is in cyclic form
(ii) Cycloalkene: cyclic form of alkene
(iii) Cycloalkyne: cyclic form of alkyne
These are some structures in cyclic structure
(B) Aromatic compound:They have the ring structure and they have specific aroma or smell for e.g. Benzene.
(C) Aliphatic compounds:They are open chained hydrocarbon and Saturated Compounds