Carbon and its Compounds for Class 10th



Written by Ziyyara 23-04-2020

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Here we are going to study about Carbon and its compounds. Why does only carbon consist of the traits of such chemical combination nature? Here you will get your answers about “Carbon and its Compounds Class 10th notes “.

Like we all should know that our food, clothes, books, and many other things that are used by us daily, contains Carbon.

What is Carbon?

Carbon:-Carbon is a major and important element among the elements found on Earth. The sign of this element is “C “and atomic number is 4, atomic mass is 12. Due to its unique properties, it has the special place in the chemistry and a separate branch known as organic chemistry

Carbon present on earth’s crust in 0.02% only in mineral form( like Carbonates that form limestone and dolomite, hydrogen carbonates, coal , petroleum and some pure form of carbon minerals like graphite, and diamond), and in the environment has 0.03% in the form of carbon dioxide( CO2). And that small presence makes such a unique diversity.


Properties of Carbon’s in Carbon and its Compounds Lesson

Carbon has infinite numbers of compounds because: it shows a unique property of catenation and it has a covalence property ( that means it can mutually share its electron pair with other element ) it has a valency of +-4.


Versatile Nature of Carbon has Some Unique Properties While making Carbon and its Compounds

There are many other elements which make Carbon and its Compounds of its different reasons:

1. Tetravalency:-Carbon has a four electrons in the valence shell and to attain noble and to attain a stable electronic configuration it should have at least 8 electrons in the valence shell (octet rule) and it’s tough to gain 4 electrons or to lose 4 electrons because it require a great amount of energy so to avoid this carbon show a unique property of tetravalent or covalence that it mutually share its electron Pair and form bonds which are known as covalent bonds.

2. What is Catenation:-Catenation, it is a unique property of element to form a bond with itself and form long chains. This property is dominant in carbon, significant among sulphur and slightly present in germanium, nitrogen, seleurium and tellurium.

3. Polymerizations:-The Process of making long chain of element by adding no. of mono bar (small element) with same elements in a reaction are called polymerisation. For example: Ethene converts into polythene and ester into polyester.

4. Isomer:-The carbon compounds which have same chemical formula, but different structural formula is known as isomers. For example, butane and isobutene.


Essential Points of Carbon and its Compounds Which will Work as Notes for Class 10th

Carbon and its compounds have their key features also like if we classify it as.

A. Carbon compounds:The compounds which have carbon in its molecular formula. For example: CO2, C6H12O6, CH3COOH etc.
If we classify it, we found organic and inorganic Compounds
(i) Inorganic compounds:- It is a typical compound that lack carbon hydrogen bonds in it.
(ii)Organic compounds:-These compounds have carbon form the covalent bond with the hydrogen and with other elements like oxygen, nitrogen and Carbides, oxides of carbon, carbonates, hydrogen carbonates and salts are continued to be studied in this group.

B. Hydrocarbon:-In which we found both hydrogen and carbon in its molecular formulas. For example: -CH4, C2H6 etc,

Classification of Hydrocarbon:-


1. Saturated compounds


Saturated compounds are those carbon compounds that have carbon atoms bonded single bonds and in unsaturated compounds the carbon atoms are bonded by double or triple bonds.

(i) Alkane:- having single bond compound, e.g.; Ethane In these compound we cannot add more hydrogen hydrogen (CnH2n+2 where n is the number of carbon)

2. Unsaturated compounds


(i) Alkene: having double bond, E.g.,Ethene (CnH2n where n is the number of carbon)


(ii) Alkyne: Having Triple bonds with different structures. E.g., Ethyne (CnH2n-2 where n is the number of carbon compounds)

(A) Alicyclic
(i) Cycloalkane: alkane is in cyclic form
(ii) Cycloalkene: cyclic form of alkene
(iii) Cycloalkyne: cyclic form of alkyne



These are some structures in cyclic structure



(B) Aromatic compound:They have the ring structure and they have specific aroma or smell for e.g. Benzene.

(C) Aliphatic compounds:They are open chained hydrocarbon and Saturated Compounds


Class 10th Crbon and its Compounds Nomenclature

No. of carbon as prefixes Alkane(single) As suffix CnH2n+2 Alkene(double) As suffix CnH2n Alk+yne(triple) As suffix CnH2n‐2
1.Meth Methane ------- -------
2.Eth Ethane Ethene Ethyne
3.Prop Propane propene Propyne
4.But Butane Butene Butyne
5.Pent Pentane Pentene Pentyne
6.Hex Hexane Hexene Hexyne
7.Hept Heptane Heptene Heptyne
8.Oct Octane Octene Octyne
9.Non Nonane Nonene Nonyne
10.Dec Decane Decene Decyne

The alkene or alkyne start it formation with eth not with meth this is because in meth there is only one carbon and four hydrogen’s (it is an exception to octet rule that it can form only duplet) carbon is making its bond with hydrogen in meth and for the formation of alkene or alkyne it needs to have double or triple bonds which is not possible with hydrogen that why the formation of alkene or alkyne starts from eth.

Isomers of pentane:- These are the same molecular formula with different structures like in C5H12 having the same formula but with different structure.


This are some structural difference of same isomers of pentane



Pentane isomer structure


Electron dot structure:

The structure in which outer most electrons of elements are represented in the form of dot or cross or they encircled to satisfy the outermost electronic configuration up to 8.is known as electron dot structure.



No. of Elements Electron dot structure Normal structure


In this carbon and compounds notes, there are some important topics like Electron dot structure of CO2 and Electron dot structure of Cyclopentane.
● Electron dot structure of CO2:-


In this picture you see a cross which denotes the 4 or tetra valence electron of carbon(c) and on the other side dots are signs of 6 valence electrons of oxygen, both carbon and oxygen are mutually sharing there electron pairs to satisfy its octet.



This line structure of CO2 which shown below:


Electron Dot Structure of cyclopentane


There are many things to be known in terms of chemistry of carbon for which IUPAC (International union of pure and applied chemistry) have formulated some rules lets discuss some of them

Functional group: The element or the Carbon and its Compounds which replace one or two or more hydrogen’s from aliphatic, aromatic and cyclic compounds of carbon they are known as functional group

Homologous series: - the homologues series is a sequence of compound that has the functional group and they exhibit similar chemical and physical properties.

Name of Heteroatom Compound’s class Name of functional group
Chlorine / bromine halogen -Cl, -Br
Oxygen Alcohol -OH
Carboxylic acid -C=O-OH
Aldehyde -C=O-H
ketone -C=O (it will be open from both sides to make another compound)


Name of compound class Prefix Suffix
Halogen Chloro / bromo
Alcohol Ol
Carboxylic acid Oic acid
Aldehyde Al
ketone One (after deleting last letter "e" from word)


There are Some Important Rules of IUPAC Nomenclature:

1. Longest chain of the carbon chain will be considered as a parent chain.
2.From which branch seems to close the main chain numbering will start from them
3. We will use prefixes if we find more than one branch like tri, tetra etc.
4. Alphabetical order should be maintained.

Chemical Properties of Carbon and its Compounds


A. Combustion reaction:- A lot of Carbon and its compounds on its reaction with oxygen leads to the evolution of large amount of carbon dioxide and heat this reaction is also known as oxidation reaction.in this reaction saturated carbon compounds give clean blue flame and unsaturated hydrocarbons give sooty flame
I. C + O2 → CO2 + heat and light
II. CH4 + O2 → CO2 + H2O + heat and light
III. CH3CH2OH + O2 → CO2 + H2O + heat and light

B. Oxidation reaction:-The Carbon and its Compounds on heating undergoes compete oxidation that means it add more oxygen in it one of the classic example of this scenario when alcohols are reacted with potassium paramagnet it completely oxidize into carboxylic acid.

C. Addition reaction:- This reaction is use in the hydrogenation (means addition of hydrogen) in oils, in this reaction the unsaturated hydrocarbons are converted into saturated hydrocarbon by making them react with hydrogen in the presence of nickel as catalyst

D. Substitution reaction:- If we substitute or replace any atom or a group of atoms from any reaction and substitute it with any other atom then the reaction is known as substitution reaction. For example: CH4 + Cl2 → CH3Cl + HCl (in the presence of sunlight)
These are some important chemical reactions, now we will go further with our journey and understand about two important Carbon and its Compounds ethanol and Ethanoic acid.


Difference Between Ethanol and Ethanoic Acid

Ethanol Ethanoic acid
Functional group is Alcohol Functional group is Carboxylic acid
Neutral in nature Acidic in nature
Cannot react with baking soda Ethanoic acid + NaHCO3 -> salt + water+ CO2
it is also used in medicines such as tincture iodine, cough syrups, and many tonics 5-8% solution of acetic acid in water is called vinegar and is used widely as a preservative in pickles
2Na + 2CH3CH2OH → 2CH3CH2O– Na+ + H2 (Sodium ethoxide) Ethanoic acid reacts with absolute ethanol in the presence of an acid catalyst to give an ester –
intake of even a small quantity of pure ethanol (called absolute alcohol) can be very dangerous The melting point of pure ethanoic acid is 290 K and hence it often freezes during winter in cold climates. This gave rise to its name glacial acetic acid

Esterification:-

Esters are easily formed by esterification reaction which is a reaction between alcohol and acid (in this ethanol and carboxylic acid) esters are sweet smelling compounds. This compound is used in the preparation of perfumes and sweet smelling compounds.
When esters are treated sodium hydroxide (which is an alkali) it gives back alcohol and sodium salt of fatty acids this reaction is known as “saponification reaction” which is used in the preparation of soaps.
CHCOOC2H5 --> C2H5OH + CH3COONa


Difference Between the Soap and Detergent

Soap Detergent
The molecules of soap are sodium or potassium salts of long-chain carboxylic acids Molecules have long hydrocarbon chain and a water soluble ionic groups
Cannot be used in hard water Can be used in hard water
Slow dissolve power Dissolve faster
They are non- pollutant or biodegradable They are more polluting than soap and non- biodegradable


Some Important Questions in Carbon and its Compounds Class 10th as Notes for Your Exam.

(i) Inorganic compounds:- These compounds do not have hydrogen elements in it. For e.g. CO2.
(ii) Organic compounds:- These compounds have carbon with its covalent bond hydrogen in it along with other elements like oxygen, nitrogen and Carbides, oxides of carbon carbonates, hydrogen carbonates and salts are continued to be studied in this group.


Alkane

having single bond compound, e.g.; Ethane In these compound we cannot add more hydrogen



❖ Unsaturated compounds

● Alkene:- having double bond, E.g.,Ethene



● Alkyne:-having Triple bonds with different structures. E.g., Ethyne



Answer:-

(i) Saturated organic compound:- having single bond compound, e.g.; Ethane, in these compound we cannot add more hydrogen.
(ii) Unsaturated compounds:-
(a) Alkene:-having double bond, E.g. Ethene.
(b). Alkene:-having double bond, E.g.Ethene

1.Tetravalency:-Since it cannot take part in electron configuration so Carbon has decided to share with other elements without losing much energy.
2. What is catenation:-way of making direct bonding with elements in branch chain and long chain or ring chain between same elements in an infinite number of elements or compounds.For e.g.
3. Polymerisations:-Process of making long chain of element by adding no. of mono bar (small element) with same elements in a reaction are called polymerisation. For example:-Ethene converts into polythene and ester into polyester.
4. Isomer:- The process in which we get different molecules by different molecular formula with the same element of carbon along with different structure

The soap molecule has two ends, one end of which dissolves in water, and this end is called Jalragi, the other end dissolves in hydrocarbons and is insoluble in water,this tip is called water recess.


When soap is on the surface of water, its ionic tip is inside the water and the segmental end is outside the water.
The inner end of the micelles dissolves in hydrocarbons, which is oily, and holds them in the micelles, and in order to rinse the cloth with water, the scum comes out with the micelles of soap, and the cloth is cleaned.


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